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CBL 2 & Skill lab



Semester: II

First Year MBBS



Cardiovascular diseases are common in the community and ischemic heart disease is one of the most common noninfectious diseases in our society. Understanding of the structure and function cardiovascular system and their relationship to diseases process is essential for diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases.The cardiovascular module is designed to fulfill these expectations.




Medical graduate after completion of 5 years training program should be able to:


  1. Recognize the clinical presentations of common cardiovascular diseases in community.
  2. Diagnose these diseases on the basis of history, examination and investigations.
  3. Explain pathological findings identified in cardiovascular pathology
  4. Identify roll of pharmaceutical agents used for diseases involving cardiovascular system.
  5. Enlist clinical features of common cardiovascular pathologies
  6. Interpret radiological investigations in relation to CVS.
  7. Understand preventive measures for counseling their patients.
  8. Practice basic principles of management of common diseases and make appropriate referral
  9. Aware of the prognosis to counsel their patients.







Cardiovascular System


CBL 1 & 3: (Combined)




CBL 1:

  • Pain sensitive structures of heart and characteristics of pain originating from heart
  • Blood supply of heart and results of its occlusion, pathophysiology of occlusion
  • Biochemical changes associated with myocardial injury
  • ECG changes associated with myocardial injury
  • Risk factors and role of lipids in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease.


CBL 3:


  • Define Hypertension, high normal blood pressures and normal blood pressures
  • Describe the mechanism of control of blood pressure
  • Interpret the role of different organs for the control of blood pressure


CBL 2:



  • Recognize different types of congenital heart diseases
  • Understand the mechanism of cyanosis
  • Understand the differences between cyanotic and acyanotic heart diseases


Anatomy: Blood supply & nerve supply of heart

Biochemistry: Biochemical changes associated with Myocardial infarction & role of Lipids

Physiology: Define Blood pressure & enumerate various regulatory mechanisms with the organs involved.

Pathology:Hypertension & its pathogenesis, Risk factors for ischemic heart diseases.

Cardiology:ECG changes seen in myocardial infarction and difference with other ischemic                      diseases.



Case scenario for CBL 1 & 3:

A 55 years old male, known hypertensive for the last 15 years was brought to emergency with complaints of severe chest pain, breathlessness and vomiting for the last 1 hour.

On examination:

VITALS:                                                              General Physical Examination:

B.P.:                110/70 mm Hg                                                Anemia:           Nil

Pulse:               80/min                                                             Jaundice:         Nil

Resp. Rate:      18/min                                                             Edema;            Nil

Temperature:   Afebrile                                                           JVP:                Not raised


Normal vesicular breathing

No added sounds

S1 & S2 audible in all four areas.




ECG: Normal P wave & QRS complex, ST segment elevation


CBC:                                                                    CARDIAC ENZYME:

Hb:      14.2 gm./dl                                                                  CPK:   410 IU/L (10-50)

TLC:    16400/cumm                                                               AST:    67 IU/L (5-45)

N:        83%                                                                             LDH:   315 IU/L (50-200)

L:         16%

M:        0                                                                                  LIPID PROFILE:

E:         01%                                                                             Total lipids:                 1130

B:        0                                                                                  S. Cholesterol:             250                                                                                                                  LDL:                           58

HDL:                           28












Cardiovascular Module:

  1. Introduction To Cardiovascular System Examination:




Diseases of cardiovascular system are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality, both in adults and children. Cardio vascular system examination is performed as an integral part of physical examination, or when a patient presents with cardio vascular problems (for example: chest pain).


Learning Objectives:


At the end of the session students should be:


  • Enumerate the steps of examination of the cardiovascular system (CVS)


  • To demonstrate correct technique of auscultation of heart.


Time:  12:20 PM – 2:30 PM (Namaz break: 1:15 PM – 1:30 PM)

Venue: BDS LECTURE HALL 2 (First Floor)